lead acid battery desulfator Electric cars waiting for roadworthy batteries
Chevrolet Volt, a design study of new problems with electric vehicles, was smart and attractive, making headlines at the Detroit auto show in January.But an asterisk is added to the introduction.The promised fuel economy is equivalent to 150 miles per gallon, and cars that use their in-vehicle charging system with a total mileage of 640 miles offer a major warning: Lithium-Industry experts say the ion batteries needed to achieve this goal are not yet on the market, as early as 2010.It's not just Volt waiting for lithium-Ion batteries worth going on the road.Japanese business newspaper Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun reported last month that the next generation of Toyota Prius will be delayed for six months as the automaker has decided on lithium-The ion battery is not fully ready yet.Officially, the car has not been delayed because Toyota has never announced a launch date, but such a decision will have a significant impact: Return to nickel-Today Prius's metal hydrogen battery means finding space for a larger and heavier battery pack.Toyota spokesman John Hansen said that while Toyota has seen "great potential" in lithium "--Ion batteries, which it wants to assure future Prius buyers of the same price and reliability they experience in today's models.The exploration of providing a sufficient range of batteries at a reasonable cost has been going on for a century.When cars first became popular, electricity was a viable alternative, eventually losing to the internal combustion engine in the 1920 s.Like King Kanter, as the ruler of England, he commanded the coming tide to go out, and California issued a decree in 1990, polluting --There must be a free electric car.Battery-Electric cars look like a smart solution for urban airQuality problems because contaminants are produced in the place where they are generated, not in the place where they are driven.Since the beginning of 1990, the price of gasoline has doubled, and there is the incentive to seek alternatives.Great development of battery technology;Hybrid cars have arrived and the price reflects their demand for two power plants, not one power plant and one battery --The third cost of the car's transmission system.The plug-in hybrid -Its battery can be charged from wall sockets and on-board internal combustion enginesAttracted a vocal lover.Before 1990, lead was the main battery choiceFamiliar car engine starter battery acid and nickel-cadmium.The lead-Good acid battery-It turns out, but it's very heavy considering that the energy it can store is very small.Nickel-The CD battery provides more mileage at a given weight and size, but its appeal is reduced due to the poor recovery system --established.They also cost at least four times as much.The real power driving the battery is portable electronics and cordless power tools, not cars.Both are high-Batch Application.The main force here is nickel.metal-Battery, which can store three times the energy of leadAcid batteries in the same size package.Nickel-metal-Hydrogen oxide is the most commonly used battery type in hybrid and electric vehiclesOnly vehicles because they are very longlived -Honda's warranty on Civic hybrid batteries is 10 years/150,000 miles in some states-But it's much more expensive than basic leads.acid battery.Since fast charging takes three hours, they are not the answer to California's push for mainstream zeroemissions cars.A new battery type appeared in 1991.the lithium-ion battery.Light weight-Lithium is third.The lightest elementThe increase in the energy capacity of a given weight, as well as the subsequent development of electrode chemistry, shows that by 2010 this will be the award-winning technology for all applications.(It is already common in devices such as mobile phones and laptops.) One problem with early lithium is durabilityUntil the terminal carrying power deteriorates to reduce the charging capacity, the ion unit allows only 750 discharge and charging cycles, or about two years of service.Changes from terminals made of carbon to terminals made of titanium lithium alumina are expected to increase this cycle to 9,000 times and use it for 20 years.There are many other battery chemicalssodium-sulfur, nickel-Zinc and nickeliron -But the main competitor for electric vehicles is still nickel.Lithium hydroxide metalion types.Temperature control is an important factor in the development of automotive batteries.To work, some battery or electrode types need to be warmer than others.There's a temperature cap-Overheating and fire of lithiumIon batteries in laptops have made headlines.All the batteries slowly lose their electricity in a small internal current, which creates heat like a toaster.If the electrode gets worse, this kind of self is increased.The discharge current is large enough to cause catastrophic overheating.New electrode chemical or external control electronics are expected to eliminate this danger.So far, lithiumIon batteries have increased their capacity at a rate of 8% to 10% per year, doubling their ability to store energy over the past decade.This and improved electrode chemistry refresh the appeal of the batteryelectric car.Electric car TeslaThe car start-up plans to start delivering $98,000 worth of sports cars this fall, which has developed an electric storage system consisting of 6,831 lithium batteries, the size of each lithium battery is about the size of the AA battery. It says it will power the car for 200 miles.With the prospect of a larger range and low-cost refueling, the battery-Electric cars are starting to look like a bigger, more practical power tool --This may make more sense than electric cars that use hydrogen fuel cells to generate electricity.Will urban and suburban residents buy large quantities of small electric vehicles at prices that compete with gasoline?Electric economy car?Can the battery reach such a price when it matures?Or will the new emissions solution, like in Europe, make small turbo diesel our first choice?It all comes down to the price.