cost of power inverter POWERLESS / Electric Grid Went Down Like Dominoes / PG&E crew started it, the system finished it
Due to power outages in San Francisco and the peninsula, the St Mateo substation for PG & E is zero.A pg & E staff member is turning the circuit back on.The Chronicle photo of deanne fitzmauricepg & E's San Mateo substation is a zero-point site for power outages in San Francisco and the peninsula.A pg & E staff member is turning the circuit back on.Chronicles by FITZMAURICE1998 Dina-12-San francisco-PDT 04:00:00-The preventable errors that led to yesterday's widespread power outage also indicate the vulnerability of the San Francisco power system.Due to the location of the city, there must be half of the power supply on the peninsula.If there is no way to change the course of the water flow, the city will collapse.This happened yesterday due to the "simple human error" of Pacific Gas and Power.It's the chief executive.Utilities officials say the problem stems from a bug with PG & E construction workers at the installation of a new transformer at the San Mateo substation.The crew violated the procedure and ignored the removal of the safety ground wire before reinstalling itPower the part of the substation.When the switch was thrown, the electricity bypassed four 115,000-Volt lines that power the peninsula and San Francisco have turned to ground.In addition to human error, it is also attributed to the laws of physics that control the behavior of electricity.Electricity is basically lazy.It would rather follow the ground wire with nowhere to go than negotiate a few miles of wires and numerous substations on a trip from the peninsula to San Francisco.Yesterday morning, with an attractive shortcut, more and more electricity was flowing out of the grid, through the San Mateo substation and rushing into the mud.This explosion of electrons creates instantaneous voltage fluctuations on the Internet.-A network system consisting of interconnected power plants, wires and substations ---This trip relay is designed to protect equipment that is very expensive and very temperamental from overload."We have had ground errors before," said Bill Mazzotti, director of transmission for PG & E .".But there has never been such an impact."Because electricity moves at the speed of light and people don't move at the speed of light, this problem has caused a wide range of power outages, affecting about 375,000 customers, the biggest power failure since the grid crash in August 1996 was due to transmission line failure in OregonCalifornia border.Substation errors destroyed the Potrero and Hunters Point power plant in San Francisco at an alarming rate, as well as the parts of the nine main substations of the "downstream" of the San Mateo substation: Portro, Larkin, mission, airport, milbray and East Grande Bay Meadows, Martin, Hunter point.Miracle 230,000The volt line from San Mateo supplies power to the Martin substation and terminates power at the Embarcadero substation on the peninsula.That's why some buildings in San Francisco have never been powered off.The state's new grid operator immediately saw interference from its Folsom command center and responded quickly to prevent a broader crisis.One of its main duties is to ensure that demand is accurately tracked by the power supply.In order to prevent excessive accumulation of electricity, it quickly reduces the output of power plants.As PG & E slowly resumed power supply, the state's independent system operators had to meet growing demand by slowly increasing power plants.While the system can crash in a few seconds, it will take several hours to reassemble the pieces."You have to check all the devices to make sure you don't overload, or you can get the system back to normal before you start up again," David Alires said .", Distribution coordinator for PG & E emergency operations center.Power failures will certainly spark discussions among independent system operators about how to meet the growing demand for power in San Francisco.With deregulation in the energy industry, PG & E can no longer be ordered to build new factories.Decision-making is no longer just technical.Any improvement must take into account the impact on a market that suddenly competes, in which large utilities no longer rule and new power suppliers want to participate in decision-making.While this is an abnormal event, this collapse does show how fragile power supply in San Francisco is, basically, there is only one transmission corridor and two local power plants.There are only four options to increase capacity, and each one is in a heated debate.Independent system operators have recently completed a third policy document on the subject, which is now open for public comment.The choice is :--New large factories;--Increase transmission lines;--Scatter small-Expand the factory scale up and down the peninsula;--Limit demand by signing more agreements that customers can interrupt and lowercost power.Each option has advantages and disadvantages.In general, increasing transmission capacity increases the power of utilities such as PG & E, because even if independent system operators operate these lines, they may own and maintain them.In contrast, the new power plant will be built in a competitive market, which means that investors, not utility customers, will take risks.There are many proponents of distributed power generation, because it is "scalable", which in industrial terms means that relatively cheap small generators can be gradually added, providing system stability, reduce reliance on large power plants and large transmission corridors.PG & E intends to turn off its Hunter point factory once there is an alternative power supply.This may be done by adding more generator sets to the Potrero station or by one of the other methods."This outage will raise questions about what to do in the future, but there is a very short memory of the crisis," said Terry Winter, chief operating officer of the grid --Independent operating system operator."Especially when you can blame people for being wrong.